1. Past Research
  2. What we know and don't
  3. Smog Test Result
  4. Dyno Test Result

Past Research and Truth on Hydrogen on Demand Technology



Hydrogen fuel enhancement

Onboard automotive hydrogen injection systems inject either a hydrogen-enriched mixture, or pure hydrogen into the intake manifold of the engine. In some cases, this is combined with air/fuel ratio and timing modifications. A small amount of hydrogen added to the intake air-fuel charge permits the engine to operate with leaner air-to-fuel mixture than otherwise possible. As the air/fuel mix approaches 30:1 the temperature of combustion substantially decreases effectively mitigating NOx production.

Increases in engine efficiency are more dominant than the energy loss incurred in generating hydrogen. This is specifically with regard to use of a onboard hydrogen reformer. Overall computational analysis has marked the possibility of operating with high air overabundance (lean or ultra-lean mixtures) without a substantial performance decrease but with great advantages on pollution emissions and fuel consumption. - Read more

ArvinMeritor / MIT
on Nov. 2005

Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion Engine Could Improve Gasoline Fuel Economy by 20% to 30%

Work being done by ArvinMeritor, IAV (Ingenieursgesellshaft für Auto und Verkehr) and MIT on enhancing gasoline combustion with a small hydrogen gas stream is pointing toward a potential estimated improvement in gasoline fuel economy of 20% to 30%, depending upon the baseline engine. - Read More

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept

Operating an engine with excess air, under lean conditions, has significant benefits in terms of increased engine efficiency and reduced emissions. However, under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion becomes unstable, significantly deteriorating drivability and engine efficiency, thus limiting the full potential of lean combustion. Due to hydrogen's high laminar flame speed, adding a hydrogen-rich mixture with gasoline into the engine helps stabilize combustion, extending the lean limit. This work studies the fundamental behavior of lean combustion in a spark ignition (SI) engine, identifying the processes that determine the engine's efficiency curve, and studying practical solutions to extend the peak efficiency and the lean limit. Lean and hydrogen-enhanced combustion data in a SI engine were generated covering a wide range of operating conditions including different compression ratios, loads, types of dilution, types and levels of hydrogen enhancement, and levels of turbulence. Combustion simulations were then performed to quantify the components that determine the efficiency vs. dilution curve. Results showed how burn duration is the primary driver of lean combustion, with a limiting 10-90% burn duration at peak efficiency and a limiting 0-10% burn duration at the onset of rapid combustion variability. - Read more

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 

March 2008
Volume 130 
Issue 2, 022801


Hydrogen-Enhanced Gasoline Stratified Combustion in SI-DI Engines

Experimentalinvestigations were carried out to assess the use of hydrogen in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Injection of small amounts of hydrogen (up to 27% on energy basis) in the intake port creates a reactive homogeneous background for the direct injection of gasoline in the cylinder. In this way, it is possible to operate the engine with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates and, in certain conditions, to delay the ignition timing as compared to standard GDI operation, in order to reduce NO and HC emissions to very low levels and possibly soot emissions. The results confirmed that high EGR rates can be achieved and NOx and HC emissions reduced, showed significant advantage in terms of combustion efficiency and gave unexpected results relative to the delaying of ignition, which only partly confirmed the expected behavior. A realistic application would make use of hydrogen-containing reformer gas produced on board the vehicle, but safety restrictions did not allow using carbon monoxide in the test facility. Thus, pure hydrogen was used for a best-case investigation. The expected difference in the use of the two gases is briefly discussed.  - Read more

SAE International
April 2006

Predicting the Behavior of a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean-Burn SI Engine Concept

This paper explores the modeling of a lean boosted engine concept. Modeling provides a useful tool for investigating different parameters and comparing resultant emissions and fuel economy performance. An existing architectural concept has been tailored to a boosted hydrogen-enhanced lean-burn SI engine. The simulation consists of a set of Matlab models, part physical and part empirical, which has been developed to simulate a working engine. The model was calibrated with production engine data and experimental data taken at MIT. Combustion and emissions data come from a single cylinder research engine and include changes in air/fuel ratio, load and speed, and different fractions of the gasoline fuel reformed to H2 and CO. The outputs of the model are brake specific NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption maps along with cumulative NOx emissions and fuel economy for urban and highway drive cycles. Model results closely match production engine performance data for naturally aspirated stoichiometric operation. Simulation of lean boosted operation with 20% gasoline reformate fraction and 20% downsized displacement predicts a 23% improvement in fuel economy. Furthermore, part load engine-out NOx emissions are reduced by 83% compared to a baseline naturally aspirated stoichiometric production engine with 10% EGR dilution.


Mississauga, Ontario
May 25, 2006

Martinrea International Exercises Warrants Raising $1,780,000 in Equity for Hy-Drive Technologies LTD.

Hy-Drive is an energy technology firm that has developed a proprietary, patented hydrogen generating system. The Hy-Drive system generates and injects hydrogen gas into a regular internal combustion engine, enhancing the combustion process by allowing fuel to burn more efficiently and completely. In previous extensive customer trials and tests, the Hy-Drive system has demonstrated significant performance enhancements, including reduced emissions, increased torque/horsepower, fuel savings and extended engine life. These benefits, specifically fuel economy and reduced emissions, provide customers with greater productivity overall, as their engines operate more efficiently, with improved cycle times and less carbon build-up. For further information, visit www.hy-drive.com.

MTZ worldwide Edition

No.: 2005-10

Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion - A Promising Concept for Ultra-lean Homogeneous Combustion

Ultra-lean-burn combustion is viewed by many as a necessary next significant step in the evolution of the gasoline engine. However, emission constraints require that these engines operate under stoichiometric conditions to avoid costly emissions control solutions. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the cylinder charge can allow these types of engines to operate much leaner than they otherwise could, eliminating the need to treat NOx emissions altogether. While this is not a new idea, it is Arvin-Meritor's development of a compact and fast-response fuel reformer that is bringing this concept much closer to reality. - Read more

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), part of DOE’s national laboratory system, is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control
Control Technology - O2 Enhanced Combustion

Oxygen-fired combustion has been utilized in industrial furnaces to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. NOx emissions reductions of as much as 80-90% have been demonstrated at commercial glass melting furnaces that have been converted to oxy-fuel firing. One of the required keys to successfully implementing oxygen-fired or enhanced combustion is an economical source of oxygen, which also can benefit numerous other technologies. Praxair is developing a novel oxygen separation technology at its Tonawanda, New York facility, using an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM). Ceramic membranes are attractive since they can have virtually infinite selectivity for oxygen, thereby allowing only the oxygen to pass through. There are two basic types of ceramic membranes, pressure and electrically driven. This project will use pressure as the driving force for separation.

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)


High Compression Ratio, Hydrogen Enhanced Gasoline Engine System Background of the Invention This invention relates to an engine system and more particularly to a gasoline engine system employing hydrogen enhanced operation.

Hydrogen addition can be used to reduce pollution (especially NOx) from vehicles with spark ignition engines using gasoline and other fuels. Hydrogen can be produced by onboard conversion of a fraction of gasoline or other primary fuel into hydrogen rich gas (H2 + CO) by partial oxidation in compact onboard devices suitable for vehicle applications. - Read more

Energy Tech
October 2003


A plasmatron is a device that can convert gasoline and diesel fuel into hydrogen. Hydrogen can be used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.

The researchers and colleagues from industry report that the plasmatron, used with an exhaust treatment catalyst on a diesel engine bus, removed up to 90 percent of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the bus’s emissions. Nitrogen oxides are the primary components of smog.

The plasmatron reformer also cut in half the amount of fuel needed for the removal process. “The absorption catalyst approach under consideration for diesel exhaust NOx removal requires additional fuel to work,” explained Daniel R. Cohn, one of the leaders of the team and head of the Plasma Technology Division at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC). “The plasmatron reformer reduced that amount of fuel by a factor of two compared to a system without the plasmatron.”

In gasoline engines the use of plasmatrons will boost car fuel efficiency by 20 percent.

"If widespread use of plasmatron hydrogen-enhanced gasoline engines could eventually increase the average efficiency of cars and other light-duty vehicles by 20 percent, the amount of gasoline that could be saved would be around 25 billion gallons a year," Cohn said. "That corresponds to around 70 percent of the oil that is currently imported by the United States from the Middle East."

The Bush administration has made development of a hydrogen-powered vehicle a priority, Heywood noted. "That's an important goal, as it could lead to more efficient, cleaner vehicles, but is it the only way to get there? Engines using plasmatron reformer technology could have a comparable impact, but in a much shorter time frame," he said. - Read more

California Environmental Engineering (CEE)

California Environmental Engineering (CEE) has tested this technology and found reduction on all exhaust emissions. They subsequently stated: “CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines.” 

The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab

The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab tested this technology and proved that: “Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized.” Again, zero emissions were observed on CO (carbon).

Corrections Canada

Corrections Canada tested several systems and concluded, “The hydrogen system is a valuable tool in helping Corrections Canada meet the overall Green Plan by: reducing vehicle emissions down to an acceptable level and meeting the stringent emissions standard set out by California and British Columbia; and reducing the amount of fuel consumed by increased mileage.”

Additionally, their analysis pointed out that this solution is the most cost effective. For their research they granted the C.S.C. Environmental Award. 



This system does not pretend to be scientific research or scientific teaching. It is only based on our findings from actual experimentation and testing. Therefore, if you find scientific inaccuracies anywhere in this website, please bear in mind that these descriptions and explanations are aimed at simplicity and ease of application rather than "scientific truth".

Here's a real-life example: Today we were told that our usage of the word "Brown's Gas" is very far from scientific truth. I was told by an expert, that if you took the world's top-5 scientists and researchers on the subject, and ask them for their expert opinion on Brown's Gas, they would give you 5 TOTALLY DIFFERENT explanations.

Oh well. So what does that mean for us?

For us, the term "scientific truth" means: what worked and what didn't work!

Or in other words, our knowledge and certainty is based solely on RESULTS. Whether we can or cannot explain it "properly" is not the issue. Our scientific truth is simply this: RESULTS = TRUTH.

For example:

If I drink a glass of herb tea and it relieves my thirst every time, then it is a workable technique to relieve thirst. Can I explain how herb tea works, to the fullest extent of biological reactions and chemical interactions between sub-atomic particles inside my body? You can bet your last dollar that I have absolutely no idea!

Does the fact that I cannot EXPLAIN it defy the workability of herb tea?

What do you think? If you think it might defy workability, then don't use it. This system comes from results and not from theories. I hope that's OK with everyone.

Happy Mileage! .

Smog Test Result


DYNO Test Results



  RunFile_005.drf - 9/4/2008 01:11:45 PM Run Type: RO Run Conditions: 99.24 ℉, 29.13 in-Hg, Humidity: 7%, SAE: 1.03
MaxPower = 188.75 Max Torque: 293.53
  RunFile_001.drf - 9/4/2008 12:31:02 PM Run Type: RO Run Conditions: 97.60 ℉, 29.13 in-Hg, Humidity: 8%, SAE: 1.03
MaxPower = 181.75 Max Torque: 266.90

Using Hydrogen on Demand System

  Horse Power (hp) Torque (ft-lbs)
with HOD 188.75 293.53
without HOD 181.75 266.20
Total Gain 7.00 27.33